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Preliminary Concepts


This page presents terms and concepts about rerobots infrastructure. To get an executive summary instead, go back to the introduction.

If you think that something is missing, or if you find errors, please contact us or open a ticket.


A workspace is an abstraction of a collection of methods and materials for robotics experiments. Note that "experiments" is not only for basic or applied research, but it is also for routine engineering activities like CI testing.

Conceptually, there are three levels of refinement. A workspace type is the workspace in terms of essential features, such as the models of hardware and the number of robots. A deployment of a workspace type is a physical realization. When there are potentially significant details about a deployment that are specified as part of the workspace type, then they are available as supplemental notes.

An instance of a workspace corresponds to usage of a deployment by a user. Ideally, each instance of a deployment is identical modulo changes of user-defined parameters where available, but practically there may be some differences, which motivates introducing a new term.


The instance lifecycle is shown in the following diagram:

diagram of instance lifecycle

Instantiating always begins at INIT. It is rare but possible that an error will occur during INIT that causes the instance to be marked as INIT_FAIL. If initialization succeeds, the instance becomes READY and usage time measurement begins for purposes such as billing. When the user is done, she can terminate the instance.

In the case of INIT_FAIL, you can contact a rerobots employee for assistance, or you can try to terminate and start a new instance again. Internal rerobots logging will automatically save this event for further investigation later.

Kinds of Connection

To connect to an instance, there are several options available now, and more are under development. The best choice depends on a variety of factors, including some that rerobots cannot control; e.g., your geographic location relative to workspace deployments, whether you will operate the robots interactively (in real-time) or upload tests and run them in batch, the kind of communications middleware you use on the robots.

Available kinds of connection:

  1. sshtun: ssh to a public IP address and port number.
  2. openvpn: create OpenVPN server and install client certificates on instance hosts.

API Tokens

The core interface of rerobots is its API. An API token is a string that provides authentication and authorization for API requests. rerobots API tokens follow the JSON Web Token standard, RFC 7519, which is introduced at

Users manage their API tokens at Learn more by reading the guides about API tokens, such as how to make and revoke API tokens.


Please read the Introduction of the hardshare manual. The source files for it are available in the repository of the hardshare client.